Saturday, June 1, 2013

Today in Labor History—June 1

June 1 is the day that U.S. labor law officially allows children under the age of 16 to work up to 8 hours per day between the hours of 7:00 am and 9:00 pm. (From Workday Minnesota) Time is ticking away, Bosses. Have you signed up sufficient numbers of low-wage tykes to maintain production rates with your downsized adult staffs?
Tupac Amaru

June 1, 1572 – The Battle of Coyaochaca between Hurtado de Arbieto and the rebel army of Tupac Amaru was fought in Peru. (From the Daily Bleed)

June 1, 1771 – A crowd of women was arrested while destroying the fences around Rewhay Common, England, in attempt to resist the enclosures of the commons that was occurring throughout the coutnry. Another group of women marched to Burton-on-Trent where they freed their comrades. (From the Daily Bleed)
June 1, 1855 – American pirate William Walker conquered Nicaragua, ceded it to the U.S. south, and reintroduced slavery. Walker was later captured and executed in Trujillo, Honduras. (From the Daily Bleed)
June 1, 1873 – Captain Jack, who led a band of 52 warriors against the U.S. army near Tule Lake, California, finally surrendered to U.S. troops. The fight was part of the Modoc Wars, in which the Modoc tribe (southern Oregon and Northern California) resisted domination by the U.S. Many of his own people had joined with the U.S. forces to help capture him. Captain Jack had led the most expensive Indian War in US history. (From the Daily Bleed, Wikipedia)
June 1, 1906 – The bloody Cananea copper miners' strike began in Sonora, Mexico. The miners were demanding 5 pesos a day and an 8-hour workday, commensurate with the U.S. citizens who were working with them side-by-side. As many as 100 miners were killed. (From the Daily Bleed)

June 1, 1909 – W. E. DuBois founded the NAACP. (From the
Daily Bleed)
June 1, 1914 – 80 militia men refused to board a train as reinforcements for the U.S. invasion of Veracruz, Mexico. The U.S. ultimately occupied the region for six months because President Huerta refused to provide the U.S. with a 21-gun salute as an apology for arresting nine U.S. sailors. More significantly, Veracruz was an important oil port. Germany and Britain had been battling for its control. The occupation gave the U.S. greater influence on the still unfolding Mexican revolution, as well as the growing tensions in Europe. (From the Daily Bleed)

June 1, 1914 – U.S. troops arrived in Colorado to reclaim coal mines from striking miners, after the Colorado National Guard massacred 19 in the miners’ camp. 2 women and 11 children were among those killed. (From the Daily Bleed, and here and here)

June 1, 1916 – Pacific Coast longshoremen (ILA) struck up and down the Pacific coast. (From the Daily Bleed)
June 1, 1925 – The Shanghai General Strike began, as part of an ongoing labor insurgency occurring throughout China's industrial cities. The day prior, police opened fire on protesters. (From the Daily Bleed)

June 1, 1929 --A meeting of the Korean Anarchist Federation (KAF) was held in Peking in which it was decided to divert all resources outside Korea itself to Manchuria. Over 2 million Koreans were living in Manchuria at the time, and the KAF was a significant force. Their significance was short-lived, however, as the Japanese attacked from the south, while Stalinists attacked from the north. By 1931, many of the anarchist leaders were dead and the region was devastated. (From the Daily Bleed and The Korean Anarchist Movement)

June 1, 1942 - The Polish Socialist newspaper, Liberty Brigade, made the first public report that that the Nazis were gassing Jews by the thousands. In the article, they published an interview with a young Jew, Emanuel Ringelblum, who had escaped the Chelmno death camp. (From Workday Minnesota)

June 1, 1963 – The U.S. Supreme Court banned formal prayers and religious exercises from public schools. (From the
Daily Bleed)

June 1, 1968 – Libertarian Socialist Helen Keller died in Westport, Connecticut. (From the Daily Bleed)

June 1, 1981 – Two Filipino longshore labor organizers, Domingo & Viernes, were assassinated in Seattle, Washington on orders of U.S.-backed dictator Ferdinand Marcos. (From the Daily Bleed)

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